Genetically modified zoonotic and epizootic diseases of humans and animals plague, tularemia, anthrax and virulent cultivated or wild strains of natural livestock diseases e. Biodiversity is the degree of dissimilarity between different life forms of a given ecosystem.
Viable, infectious anthrax bacilli have been cultured from animal bones buried for to years in archeological sites de VosDixon et al.
How to conserve biodiversity? Bioweapon threats to biodiversity Efforts to control human disease epidemics resulting from plague and tularemia bioweapon attacks will need to take into account the eradication of potential animal reservoirs and insect vectors once initial outbreaks among human populations have been contained Alibek and Handelman As potential disease reservoirs, rare or endangered species populations within affected areas may be subject to eradication as well.
Germany was also implicated in an attempt to precipitate an epidemic of plague among humans in St. Habitat loss and persecution, exacerbated by the effects of canine distemper on ferrets and sylvatic plague on prey populations prairie dogscaused the decline and ultimate extinction of black-footed ferrets from their formerly vast range within the Great Plains region of North America.
Disturbingly, canine distemper is also a disease that has been cultured and tested in bioweapon laboratories Kortepeter et al. About this resource This Environmental Studies essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. Threats to biodiversity and endangered species There is a growing but still insufficient scientific recognition of the importance of disease control for the conservation of biodiversity and endangered species populations Daszak et al.
Plant diseases developed for bioweapons Biological weapon effects on biological diversity essay against food crops, opium poppies, and coca plants may, however, infect nontarget species of wild plants and become established locally subsequent to their introduction to new environments Madden and van den Bosch Vaccines for many animal diseases still common in developing countries have been phased out in Europe and North America, and these vaccines, along with drugs for routine treatment, may not be readily available in sufficient quantities to suppress large-scale disease outbreaks among animals and livestock.
Before disappearance, the American chestnut was an important timber and fuelwood tree that provided an abundant and high-quality food resource for wildlife, livestock, and human populations throughout much of eastern North America.
Current biological weapons arsenals, however, include diseases that are highly infectious and contagious, easy to produce and deploy, and able to cause high morbidity or mortality in human and animal populations.
The American elm Ulmus americana is another characteristic and formerly common tree of eastern North American landscapes that has also been driven to virtual extinction by an introduced fungal pathogen, the Dutch elm disease Ophiostoma Ceratocystis ulmi.
In the case of anthrax, the risk of subsequent disease outbreaks within contaminated areas may continue for decades and even centuries after the total eradication of hosts and vectors: An outbreak of distemper in the Serengeti region of Tanzania during the early s caused the extirpation of the resident wild dog population and the death of approximately one-third of the Serengeti's resident lion population.
The loss of diversity, genes, species and ecosystems that are responsible for the basis for future variation or adaptation, will have both major economic and social values Biological weapon effects on biological diversity essay, The use of biological weapons against livestock populations or agricultural crops could have potentially disastrous spillover effects on wild species of plants and animals BrownDaszak et al.
During the 18th century, the British colonial army used smallpox-contaminated blankets to spread disease among Native American tribes in northeastern North America and smallpox-infected civilian infiltrators to spread disease among insurgent American militias during the American Revolutionary War Wheelis During World War I, Germany investigated techniques for using anthrax, glanders, cholera, and fungal diseases of wheat as biological weapons.
Biological weapons bioweapons are defined as biological organisms, and substances derived directly from living organisms, that can be used to cause death or injury to humans, animals, or plants.
Plague-infected fleas were reportedly used by the Japanese to precipitate plague epidemics in China during World War II, and it has been estimated that some 10, human subjects were used for bioweapon experiments in China involving anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox Christopher et al.
The former USSR sponsored extensive research on possible bioweapons applications of a variety of fungal diseases of important food crops wheat stem rust, rice blastviral and bacterial diseases of domesticated livestock e.
This risk holds true even, and perhaps especially in some instances, for wildlife species that may become infected by serious livestock diseases without exhibiting overt clinical signs of infection. Traditional cattle-raising and farming societies, such as the Sukuma and Samburu peoples of eastern Africa and the Ndebele and Zulu peoples of southern Africa, were also severely affected by the rinderpest epidemic.
May Tag cloud: Samples of infectious materials obtained or cultured from infected plants or animals or by-products thereof are all that would be required in many instances Brown Most government bioweapons programs included research on the culture and testing of disease agents intended specifically for use against livestock and food crops Ban Many of the bioweapons agents cultured and tested for use against animals and humans during the early decades of the 20th century were not highly contagious organisms.
A century later, New York City is the apparent entry site for an emerging and potentially fatal disease of humans and animals, the West Nile virus WNV. Our establishment provides personalized attention to every client to understand their requirement and deliver them the best.
Several major international terrorist organizations, including but not restricted to the Al Qaeda network, are believed to have the financial resources and political contacts needed to access state-of-the-art bioweapon disease cultures and production technologies. Cattle populations were devastated and African buffalo extirpated from most of their range in southern and eastern Africa.
Conservation of biodiversity necessitates retaining, upholding and restoring ecosystem functions and processes BSC These types of essays need to constitute relevant and authentic factual information and thus require a thorough research.
We understand students have plenty on their plates, which is why we love to help them out. It includes Species diversity, the active number of species denoted in a data set. The costs of not sustaining biodiversity will soon prove unbearable for both present and future generations DEC It is hence significant that communities should educated by what means to address biodiversity loss at a landscape scale in order to protect and improve native habitats and ecosystems.
Let us do the work for you, so you have time to do what you want to do! Bioterrorist uses of enzootic livestock diseases and emerging zoonotic diseases diseases that can be transmitted between animal and human populations represent a potentially serious threat to livestock and wildlife populations never previously exposed to these diseases.
The affects of the usage of such weapons It is of primary importance that a biological warfare essay brings out the hazardous causes of the usage of such weapons.- Biological Weapons and Biological Warfare Thesis: Biological Warfare is morally and inhumanely wrong, It is the wrongful killing of men, women, and children.
It should be stopped no matter what the circumstances are.
I. Introduction into the bad effects of biological warfare through some examples. Reason behind the concern of the U.S. on bioterrorism; Motivation of countries that develop biological weapons; Aspects of bioterrorism. Integrating the AGENTS OF.
Bioweapons, Biodiversity, and Ecocide: Potential Effects of Biological Weapons on Biological Diversity: Bioweapon disease outbreaks could cause the extinction of endangered wildlife species, the erosion of genetic diversity in domesticated plants and animals, the destruction of traditional human livelihoods, and the extirpation of indigenous cultures.
During Convention on Biological Diversity, the most general accepted definition of biodiversity was ‘variability among living organisms from all sourcesand the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems’ (UNCED, ).
Biological weapons can have serious ramifications on the biological diversity as a whole, and not just to the ones in which the biological weapons are created for.
Will a biological weapon effect only a certain population of organisms, or will the ramifications be greater?/5(1). Biological Weapon Effects on Biological Diversity "The cost of developing small-scale but nonetheless sophisticated bioweapons facilities and arsenals is in the range of $10, to $," (Dudley ).
Natural viruses are readily and inexpensively available and have just as much capability as other viruses to disrupt the biological diversity.Download